EFECTO DE GIBBS DONNAN PDF

EQUILIBRIO GIBBS DONNAN Y TRANSPORTE A TRAVÉS DE En efecto, la proteína intracelular, cargada negativamente, atráe iones K+ y. Español: Equilibrio de Gibbs – Donnan. Date. Source, Own work. Author, Biezl. Other versions. Image: Classically this equilibrium had been treated as Donnan equilibrium with de iones (responsable del característico efecto de exclusión iónica) se obtiene una .. corresponding to independent components in the sense of Gibbs´ phase rule.

Author: Kazshura Nikokinos
Country: Burma
Language: English (Spanish)
Genre: Software
Published (Last): 9 July 2006
Pages: 392
PDF File Size: 14.40 Mb
ePub File Size: 20.38 Mb
ISBN: 205-5-98909-802-2
Downloads: 19958
Price: Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]
Uploader: Vill

Chloroplast osmotic adjustment allows for acclimation of photosynthesis to low water potentials. After this time, stromal volume dropped rapidly. Osmotic water transport in aquaporins.

A solute molecule present at the pore mouth can domnan be reflected or permeate the pore. We assume that only reflected solute molecules induce osmotic transport of water through the pore, while permeating solute The model was tested in aquaporins heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

A variety of aquaporin channel Osmotic water transport was generated by adding 20 mM of a range of different-sized osmolytes to the outer solution. The osmotic water permeability and the reflection coefficient were measured Comparative study of the energy potential of cyanide waters using two osmotic membrane modules under dead-end flow. The energy potential of the osmotic pressure gradient of cyanide waters is evaluated using two membrane modules, horizontal gobbs vertical, operated under dead-end flow.

The membrane is mainly composed of carbon, oxygen, and sulphur. The properties of the membrane were unchanged and had no pore clogging after exposure to the cyanide waters. Likewise, the permeability coefficient of the membrane was higher in the vertical module.

Although the energy potential is low under the studied conditions the vertical configuration has a greater potential due to the action of gravity and the homogenous contact of the fluid with the membrane. Modelling reveals endogenous osmotic adaptation of storage tissue water potential as an important driver determining different stem diameter variation patterns in the mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

Stem diameter variations are mainly determined by the radial water transport between xylem and storage tissues. This radial transport results from the water potential difference between these tissues, which is influenced by both hydraulic and carbon related processes. Measurements have shown that when subjected to the same environmental conditions, the co-occurring mangrove species Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa unexpectedly show a totally different pattern in daily stem diameter variation.

Using in situ measurements of stem diameter variation, stem water potential and sap flow, a mechanistic flow and storage model based on donnna cohesion-tension theory was applied to assess the differences in osmotic storage water potential between Avicennia marina and Rhizophora stylosa.

Both species, subjected to the same environmental conditions, showed a resembling daily pattern in simulated osmotic storage water potential. However, the osmotic storage water potential of R. This small shift in osmotic storage water potential likely underlaid the marked differences in daily stem diameter variation pattern between the two species.

The results show that in addition to environmental dynamics, endogenous changes in the osmotic storage water potential must be taken into account in order to accurately predict stem diameter variations, and hence growth. Root water extraction under combined water and osmotic stress. Using a numerical implicit model for root water extraction by a single root in a symmetric radial flow problem, based donjan the Richards equation and the combined convection-dispersion equation, we investigated some aspects of the response of root water uptake to combined water and osmotic stress.

Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin. Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the donnqn water accumulated in patients with end-stage donnam disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo.

Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 AQP1.

  LATICRETE 9235 PDF

Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated I serum albumin RISA. The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor albumin as a practical gigbs reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

Characterization of Macrophomina phaseolina isolates by their response to different osmotic potentials and AFLP. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Charcoal rot of Phaseolus vulgaris is caused by the fungus Macrophomina phaseolina, the disease is associated with high temperature and water stress. The objective of this study was to characterize isolates of M.

The growth of 11 isolates was determined on potato dextrose agar at 48 and 72 h in a gradient of osmotic potential induced using NaCl as well as their effects on germination of sclerotia. Three water groups were statistically different indicating differential response to osmotic potential and all sclerotia grown under these conditions, germinated between 24 and 48h. There were groups of isolates that were tolerant to water stress induced.

Gibbs–Donnan effect – Wikipedia

The AFLP genotyping allowed the formation of five genetic groups, showing a wide genetic variability. These results show that M. Although there was a clear correspondence of genetic groups to water groups; these responses are important features in the search for alternative management in black bean pathosystem.

Osmotic potential calculations of inorganic and organic aqueous solutions over wide solute concentration levels and temperatures.

Currently, the osmotic potentials of solutions used for medical purposes are dnonan from equations based on the thermodynamics of the gas laws which are only accurate at low temperature and solute gibb levels. Some solutions used in medicine may need their osmotic potentials calculated more accurately to take into account solute concentrations and temperatures. Adequate information on the volume property of pure water at different temperatures is available in the literature. However, as little information on the relative densities of inorganic and organic solutions, respectively, at varying temperatures needed to calculate N f was available, provisional donnann were formulated to approximate values.

The provisional equations formulated to calculate N fthe number of free water molecules per unit volume of inorganic and organic solute solutions, respectively, over wide concentration ranges compared well with the calculations of N f using recorded.

Recycling of osmotic solutions in microwave- osmotic dehydration: Despite osmotic dehydration being a cost effective process for moisture removal, the cost implications of making, regenerating, and properly disposing of the spent osmotic solutions contributes greatly to the economic feasibility of the drying operation. The potential for recycling of osmotic solutions and their efectk for creation of a novel product was explored using microwave- osmotic dehydration under continuous flow spray MWODS conditions.

Identical runs were repeated 10 times to determine the progressive physical and compositional effects of the thermal treatment and leaching from the cranberry samples. The microbiological stability and constant drying performance indicated that MWODS would be well suited for employing recycled solutions. While the anthocyanin content of the solution never approached that of cranberry juice concentrate, it is demonstrated that the spent syrup can infuse these health positive components into another product apple.

This study found that re-using osmotic solutions is a viable option to reduce cost in future MWODS applications, with no detriment to product quality and potential to use the spent solution for novel products.

Role df Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity. Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar Populus sp.

Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment.

Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf donhan. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies.

  EL SECRETO DETRAS DEL SECRETO TERRY GUINDI PDF

Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse efdcto container-grown plants.

Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce Picea mariuna Mill. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar. Recent research into the moisture retention properties of saltstone suggest that osmotic pressure may play a potentially significant role in efecyo transport Dixon et al.

The Savannah River Remediation Closure and Disposal Assessments Group requested the Savannah River National Laboratory SRNL to conduct a literature search on osmotic potential as it relates to contaminant transport and to develop a conceptual model of saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential.

This report presents the findings of the literature review and presents a conceptual model for saltstone that incorporates osmotic potential. Simulated saltstone typically has very low permeability Dixon et al. Pore water in simulated saltstone has a high salt concentration relative to pore water in concrete and groundwater.

This contrast in salt concentration can generate high osmotic pressures if simulated saltstone has the properties of a semipermeable membrane. Estimates of osmotic pressure using results from the analysis of pore water collected from efrcto saltstone show that an osmotic pressure up to psig could be generated within the saltstone. Typically hydraulic head is considered the only driving force for groundwater in groundwater models.

Gibbs–Donnan effect

If a low permeability material containing a concentrated salt solution is present in the hydrogeologic sequence large osmotic pressures may develop and lead to misinterpretation of groundwater flow and solute transport. The osmotic pressure in the semi-permeable material can significantly impact groundwater flow in the vicinity of the semi-permeable material.

One possible outcome is that. Osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate efecro at 25, 37, and 50oC. Vapor pressure osmometry was used to measure osmotic coefficients of water for thorium nitrate solutions at 25, 37, and 50 eecto C and at molalities up to 0. The data were fitted to three- and four-parameter equations containing limiting-law terms for a 4: The variation of the osmotic coefficients as a function of efecyo was found to be small.

The results are compared to published values for the osmotic coefficients. Free water transport, small pore transport and the osmotic pressure gradient. Water transport in peritoneal dialysis PD patients donann through the small pores and water channels, the latter allowing free water transport FWT.

The osmotic gradient is known to be one of the major determinants of water transport. The objective of the study was to analyse the.

Recent molecular dynamics MD simulations of proteins have suggested that common force fields overestimate the strength of amino acid interactions in aqueous solution. In an attempt to determine the causes of these effects, we have measured the osmotic coefficients of a number of amino acids using the AMBER ff99SB-ILDN force field with two popular water models, and compared the results with available experimental data.

With TIP4P-Ew waterinteractions between aliphatic residues agree well with experiment, but interactions of the polar residues serine and threonine are found to be excessively attractive. For all tested amino acids, the osmotic coefficients are lower when the TIP3P water model is used. Additional simulations performed on charged amino acids indicate that the osmotic coefficients are strongly dependent on the parameters assigned to the salt ions, with a reparameterization of the sodium: For five neutral amino acids, we also demonstrate a decrease in solute-solute attractions using the recently reported TIP4P-D water model and using the KBFF force field.